Yersinia pestis

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Yersinia pestis (Plague)


Human and animals

Transmission/Exposure Routes

Transmitted to humans from infected flees and rodents are reservoirs of the disease (dose response page for Yersinia pestis)

Incubation Times

2–6 days for Bubonic plague [1]

Case Fatality Ratios

Case Fatality Ratios
Disease Untreated Treated Reference
Pneumonic plague 100% 50% [2]
Bubonic plague 50%-90% 10%-20% [2]
Septicemic plague 20%-25% [2]

Burden of Disease

The CDC has reported an average of 10-15 cases of yersinia pestis infection annually in the United States. Areas of natural occurrence of plague in the United States include Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Internationally between 1990-1995, a total of 12,998 cases of plague were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), mostly from countries such as India, Zaire, Peru, Malawi, and Mozambique. [3]

Duration of Infectiousness and disease



Asymptomatic Rates

Excretion Rates (see Exposure)



A Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bipolar-staining bacillus bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae

Recommended Dose Response Model

Dose response models for Yersinia pestis
Exponential, k is 1.63E-03
Exponential model.png


  1. Wikipedia
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Medscape
  3. Siddharth, W. Bronze, M. (2009) "Plague" Medscape Reference. Retrieved on 2-2-12 from