Vibrio cholerae

From QMRAwiki
Revision as of 15:54, 22 May 2012 by Brucean2 (talk | contribs) (References)
Jump to: navigation, search

Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)

http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/disease.html

Hosts

Humans

Transmission/Exposure Routes

Fecal-oral transmission (Medscape)

Incubation Times

Four hours to five days with an average of 2-3 days (http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/profcholera.htm)

Case Fatality Ratios

Before the development of effective regimens for replacing fluids and electrolyte losses, the mortality in severe cholera was more than 50%. Mortality is higher in pregnant women and children. Mortality rates are lowest where intravenous therapy is available. Average case fatality rates for Europe and the Americas continue to hover around 1%. At the Treatment Center of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, less than 1% of patients with severe dehydration die. (Medscape)
In Africa, a marked decline in case fatality rates has occurred since 1970; however, Africa continues to have the highest reported case fatality rates (approximately 4% in 1999) compared with the rest of the world. (Medscape)

Burden of Disease

The incidence of Vibrio infection in the United States continues to be low, with highest number documented in the age group older than 50 years, which has been around 0.50 cases per 100,000 population from 2003-2008. The frequency of cholera among international travelers returning to the United States has averaged 1 case per 500,000 population, with a range of 0.05-3.7 cases per 100,000 population, depending on the countries visited. (Medscape)

Duration of Infectiousness and disease

Symptomology

Very often, there are no symptoms associated with Cholera. However, more severe cases may be characterized by watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. Individuals can become extremely dehydrated which can cause shock. In extreme cases, death can occur within hours. [1]

Latency

Asymptomatic Rates

Excretion Rates (see Exposure)

Immunity

Microbiology

A comma-shaped, gram-negative aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacillus that varies in size from 1-3 µm in length by 0.5-0.8 µm in diameter (Medscape)

Recommended Dose Response Model

Dose response models for Vibrio cholera
Beta-Poisson, α is 0.250, N50 is 243
Betapoisson model.jpg





References

  1. CDC http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/#symptoms

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/962643-overview#showall
http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/profcholera.htm