QMRA Library

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This library page is for high-quality references and learning materials regarding QMRA in general. It is not intended to be all-encompassing. Other pages in this wiki contain their own detailed reference lists, which are not duplicated here.


1) Haas, C.N., Rose, J.B. & Gerba, C.P., 1999. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. amazon.com

2) USEPA Exposure Factors Handbook, 2011 edition. epa.gov

3) Feachem, R. Bradley, D. Garelick, H. and D. Duncan Mara. (1983) "Sanitation and Disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management" John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York, Toronto, Singapore. Available at the World Bank website here.

Authors Title Publication
Ahmad, F., Pandey, A.K., et al. (2012). Environmental applications and potential health implications of quantum dots. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14(8). [1]
Austin, R. G., B. V. Waanders, et al. (2008). Mixing at cross junctions in water distribution systems. II: Experimental study. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management-Asce 134(3): 295-302. Full text
Bartrand, T. A., M. H. Weir, et al. (2008). Dose-response models for inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores: Interspecies comparisons. Risk Analysis 28(4): 1115-1124. Full text
Boone, S. A. and C. P. Gerba (2007). Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(6): 1687-1696. Full text
Casman, E. A. and B. Fischhoff (2008). Risk communication planning for the aftermath of a plague bioattack. Risk Analysis 28(5): 1327-1342. Full text
Choi, C. Y., Shen, J. Y. and Austin, R. G. (2008). Development of a Comprehensive Solute Mixing Model (AZRED) for Double-Tee, Cross, and Wye Junctions Water Distribution Systems Analysis 2008 [2]
Corella-Barud, V., K. D. Mena, et al. (2009). Evaluation of neighborhood treatment systems for potable water supply. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 19(1): 49-58.
de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M. and Maurer, J. (2011). Assessing small non-zero perceptions of chance: The case of H1N1 (swine) flu risks Journal of Risk and Uncertainty April 2011, Volume 42(2): 145-159 [3]
Durham, D. P. and E. A. Casman (2009). Threshold Conditions for the Persistence of Plague Transmission in Urban Rats. Risk Analysis 29(12): 1655-1663. Full text
Greenberg, D. L., J. D. Busch, et al. (2010). Identifying experimental surrogates for Bacillus anthracis spores: a review. Investig Genet 1(1): 4. Full text
Herzog, A. B., Pandey, A.K., et al. (2012). Evaluation of Sample Recovery Efficiency of Bacteriophage P22 on Fomites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology [4]
Herzog, A. B., S. D. McLennan, et al. (2009). Implications of Limits of Detection of Various Methods for Bacillus anthracis in Computing Risks to Human Health. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(19): 6331-6339. Full text
Hong, T., Gurian, P.L., Huang, Y. and C. N. Haas. (2012). Prioritizing Risks and Uncertainties from Intentional Release of Selected Category A Pathogens. PloS one, 7(3) [5]
Hong, T., P. L. Gurian, et al. (2010). Setting Risk-Informed Environmental Standards for Bacillus Anthracis Spores. Risk Analysis 30(10): 1602-1622. Full text
Huang, Y. and C. N. Haas (2009). Time-Dose-Response Models for Microbial Risk Assessment. Risk Analysis 29(5): 648-661. Full text
Huang, Y. and C. N. Haas (2011). Quantification of the Relationship between Bacterial Kinetics and Host Response for Monkeys Exposed to Aerosolized Francisella tularensis. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(2): 485-490. Full text
Huang, Y., T. A. Bartrand, et al. (2009). Incorporating time postinoculation into a dose-response model of Yersinia pestis in mice. Journal of Applied Microbiology 107(3): 727-735. Full text
Huang, Y., T. Hong, et al. (2010). How Sensitive Is Safe? Risk-Based Targets for Ambient Monitoring of Pathogens. Ieee Sensors Journal 10(3): 668-673. Full text
Jones, R. and M. Nicas (2009). Experimental Determination of Supermicrometer Particle Fate Subsequent to a Point Release within a Room under Natural and Forced Mixing. Aerosol Science and Technology 43(9): 921-938. Full text
Jones, R. M., Y. Masago, et al. (2009). Characterizing the Risk of Infection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. Risk Analysis 29(3): 355-365. Full test
Kim, M., C. Y. Choi, et al. (2008). Source tracking of microbial intrusion in water systems using artificial neural networks. Water Research 42(4-5): 1308-1314. Full text
Kitajima, M., Y. Huang, et al. (2011). Dose-response time modelling for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection. Letters in Applied Microbiology 53(4): 438-444. Full text
Li, S., J. N. S. Eisenberg, et al. (2009). Dynamics and Control of Infections Transmitted From Person to Person Through the Environment. American Journal of Epidemiology 170(2): 257-265. Full text
Masago, Y., T. Shibata, et al. (2008). Bacteriophage P22 and Staphylococcus aureus attenuation on nonporous fomites as determined by plate assay and quantitative PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(18): 5838-5840. Full text
Mayer, B. T., J. S. Koopman, et al. (2011). A dynamic dose-response model to account for exposure patterns in risk assessment: a case study in inhalation anthrax. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 8(57): 506-517. Full text
Mitchell-Blackwood, J., P. L. Gurian, et al. (2011). Finding Risk-Based Switchover Points for Response Decisions for Environmental Exposure to Bacillus anthracis. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 17(2): 489-509.
Pujol, J. M., J. E. Eisenberg, et al. (2009). The Effect of Ongoing Exposure Dynamics in Dose Response Relationships. Plos Computational Biology 5(6). Full text
Razzolini, M. T. P., M. H. Weir, et al. (2011). Risk of Giardia infection for drinking water and bathing in a peri-urban area in Sao Paulo, Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 21(3): 222-234. Abstract
Romero-Gomez, P. and C. Y. Choi (2011). Axial Dispersion Coefficients in Laminar Flows of Water-Distribution Systems. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering-Asce 137(11): 1500-1508. Abstract
Romero-Gomez, P., C. K. Ho, et al. (2008). Mixing at cross junctions in water distribution systems. I: Numerical study. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management-Asce 134(3): 285-294. Full text
Romero-Gomez, P., K. E. Lansey, et al. (2011). Impact of an incomplete solute mixing model on sensor network design. Journal of Hydroinformatics 13(4): 642-651. Abstract
Sinclair, R. G., C. Y. Choi, et al. (2008). Pathogen Surveillance Through Monitoring of Sewer Systems. Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol 65 65: 249-269. Full text
Sinclair, R. G., P. Romero-Gomez, et al. (2009). Assessment of MS-2 phage and salt tracers to characterize axial dispersion in water distribution systems. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part a-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 44(10): 963-971. Full text
Sinclair, R., S. A. Boone, et al. (2008). Persistence of category A select agents in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(3): 555-563. Full text
Solon, I., P. L. Gurian, et al. (2011). The Extraction of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate from HVAC Filters. Indoor and Built Environment Full text
Song, I., P. Romero-Gomez, et al. (2009). Experimental Verification of Incomplete Solute Mixing in a Pressurized Pipe Network with Multiple Cross Junctions. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering-Asce 135(11): 1005-1011. Full text
Spicknall, I. H., J. S. Koopman, et al. (2010). Informing Optimal Environmental Influenza Interventions: How the Host, Agent, and Environment Alter Dominant Routes of Transmission. Plos Computational Biology 6(10). Full text
Tamrakar, S. B. and C. N. Haas (2008). Dose-response model for Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis). Journal of Applied Microbiology 105(5): 1361-1371. Full text
Tamrakar, S. B. and C. N. Haas (2008). Dose-response model for Lassa virus. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 14(4): 742-752.
Tamrakar, S. B. and C. N. Haas (2011). Dose-Response Model of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) for Human. Risk Analysis 31(10): 1610-1621. Full text
Tamrakar, S. B., A. Haluska, et al. (2011). Dose-Response Model of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever). Risk Analysis 31(1): 120-128. Full text
Teske, S. S., Y. Huang, et al. (2011). Animal and Human Dose-Response Models for Brucella Species. Risk Analysis 31(10): 1576-1596. Full text
Watanabe T, Bartrand TA, Omura T and C.N. Haas (2011). Dose-response assessment for influenza A virus based on data sets of infection with its live attenuated reassortants. Risk Anal. 2012 Mar;32(3):555-65. [6]
Watanabe, T., Bartrand, T. A., Weir, M. H., Omura, T. and C. N. Haas (2010). Development of a Dose‐Response Model for SARS Coronavirus. Risk Analysis, 30(7), 1129-1138. [7]
Weir, M. H. and C. N. Haas (2009). Quantification of the Effects of Age on the Dose Response of Variola major in Suckling Mice. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 15(6): 1245-1256.
Weir, M. H., M. T. P. Razzolini, et al. (2011). Water reclamation redesign for reducing Cryptosporidium risks at a recreational spray park using stochastic models. Water Research 45(19): 6505-6514. Full text
Yoon, J. Y., J. H. Han, et al. (2009). Real-Time Detection of Escherichia Coli in Water Pipe Using a Microfluidic Device with One-Step Latex Immunoagglutination Assay. Transactions of the Asabe 52(3): 1031-1039. Full text
Zelner, J. L., A. A. King, et al. (2010). How Infections Propagate After Point-Source Outbreaks An Analysis of Secondary Norovirus Transmission. Epidemiology 21(5): 711-718.

1) Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment (CAMRA), the originator of this wiki.
2) USDA Predictive Microbiology Information Portal (PMIP). Includes models of bacterial growth and inactivation.
3) EPA Microbial Risk Assessment Guideline
4) EPA Guidance and Tools for creating Risk Assessments
5) EPA Thesaurus of Terms Used in Microbiological Risk Assessment
6) WHO Guidelines for risk assessment of microbiological hazards in food and water.
7) WHO for risk assessment of rolling revision of the guidelines for drinking-water quality.
8) Wikipedia article on Risk Assessment in Public Health.
9) Wikipedia article on food safety risk analysis.
10) Joint United Nations FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Microbiological Risk Assessment (JEMRA) on microbiological food risks
11) UN FAO and WHO Microbiological Risk Assessment Tools
12) Principles and Guidelines for the Conduct of Microbiologicial Risk Assessment
13) FoodRisk.org is a Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN) in collaboration with the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition from US Food and Drug Administration (CFSAN/FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Services from US Department of Agriculture (FSIS/USDA).
14) FoodRisk.org list of available tools.
15) A swift Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (sQMRA) tool for food risk.
16) FDA Microbial Risk Assessment: Achievements and Future Challenges.
17) European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General Risk assessment of food borne bacterial pathogens: Quantitative methodology relevant for human exposure assessment
18) UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) Microbiological risk main page.
19) UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) Microbial Risk Assessment Research Programme (B12)
20) UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) Microbial Risk Management Research Programme (B13)
21) Waterborne microbial risk tool created by Montana University
22) Microrisk.com is a collaborative research project to develop and evaluate harmonized framework for quantitative assessment of the microbiological safety of drinking water in EU Member States.
23) Microrisk.com QMRA methodology
24) CDC Perspective on Quantitative Risk Assessment as an Emerging Tool for Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
25) QMRAspot: A tool for Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment from surface water to potable water

1) Teaching materials from the 2010 QMRA Summer Institute, a week-long intensive course held every year from 2006 to 2011. TU Delft

2) QMRA presentations from the 2011 Assn. of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors (AEESP) meeting.

1) Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessments as a Science-Based Tool for Policy (University of Gent)

         Part 1
         Part 2
         Part 3

2) Dose-Response Models in Microbial Food Safety Risk Assessment (University of Gent)

         Part 1
         Part 2