Difference between revisions of "Paneer E.coli and Salmonella 2015 QMRA III"

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The source of the organisms is fecal contamination, suspected to be of human origin. However, all of these pathogens are considered to also be zoonotic (Todar, 2008). The majority of the contamination is assumed to have occurred during the packaging process (Shrivastava, In preparation), due to the high temperatures that are involved in other processes including the production of paneer from milk. During the first heat-treating step, the milk is heated up to 90°C for 10-15 min, and during the coagulation process, it is again heated up to 60-90°C (Khan and Pal, 2011). Salmonella spp infection can result in a range of outcomes, particularly salmonellosis, which is characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. S. typhi and S. paratyphi (A, B, C) can result in severe enteric fevers (Lacey, 1993). The infectious dose for non-typhoidal Salmonella has been observed to be as low as 103 organisms (Bronze and Greenfield, 2005; Ryan and Ray, 2004).  
 
The source of the organisms is fecal contamination, suspected to be of human origin. However, all of these pathogens are considered to also be zoonotic (Todar, 2008). The majority of the contamination is assumed to have occurred during the packaging process (Shrivastava, In preparation), due to the high temperatures that are involved in other processes including the production of paneer from milk. During the first heat-treating step, the milk is heated up to 90°C for 10-15 min, and during the coagulation process, it is again heated up to 60-90°C (Khan and Pal, 2011). Salmonella spp infection can result in a range of outcomes, particularly salmonellosis, which is characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. S. typhi and S. paratyphi (A, B, C) can result in severe enteric fevers (Lacey, 1993). The infectious dose for non-typhoidal Salmonella has been observed to be as low as 103 organisms (Bronze and Greenfield, 2005; Ryan and Ray, 2004).  
 
“Food poisoning” from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) often results in similar health outcomes as that of Salmonellosis, which can be acquired from ingesting 106 organisms (Todar, 2008). Infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7 can be acquired from a dose of 10-100 organisms (Todar, 2008) and is typically characterized by the same set of aforementioned symptoms and hemorrhagic colitis. However, O157:H7 infection may result in a more severe condition known as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This is seen in approximately 5-10% of all O157:H7 cases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014,). The attack rates and incubation times for the bacterial isolates can vary depending on population and organism (Table 2).   
 
“Food poisoning” from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) often results in similar health outcomes as that of Salmonellosis, which can be acquired from ingesting 106 organisms (Todar, 2008). Infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7 can be acquired from a dose of 10-100 organisms (Todar, 2008) and is typically characterized by the same set of aforementioned symptoms and hemorrhagic colitis. However, O157:H7 infection may result in a more severe condition known as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This is seen in approximately 5-10% of all O157:H7 cases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014,). The attack rates and incubation times for the bacterial isolates can vary depending on population and organism (Table 2).   
 
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Table 2: Attack rates and incubation times for E. coli, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.
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[[Table2.jpg]]
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=Exposure Assessment=
 
=Exposure Assessment=
 
[[CSSection::ExposureAssessment| ]]
 
[[CSSection::ExposureAssessment| ]]

Revision as of 19:57, 28 December 2015


[edit]

In Mumbai, India, paneer is a staple in the daily diet for most residents. It is estimated that the average daily intake of paneer is 10g/person-day. Recently, samples of paneer were taken from different production sources (unorganized vs organized) and analyzed for select foodborne pathogens. Varying levels of Escherichia coli (O157:H7 and non-O157:H7) and the presence of Salmonella spp were found in many of the samples. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted to assess the risk associated with eating paneer based on production source, holding time and storage temperature. The QMRA showed that temperature is an important factor in the risk of infection. After two hours of storage at room temperature (24°C), the median risk of infection for E. coli O157:H7 was 1.0 in paneer from the unorganized sector. In comparison, the median risk of infection for E. coli O157:H7 for the same conditions was 0.99. A Monte Carlo simulation was run for three different temperatures and eleven different time points. The results of the simulation were used in a two-tailed t-test to determine if the risk of infection (E. coli and E. coli O157:H7) from consuming paneer from unorganized and organized sectors were statistically significantly different. The t-test showed that for storage temperatures at 4°C, the difference in risk was statistically significant for both organisms, while at 12°C, the difference in risk was not statistically significantly different for either organism. The results from the t-test show that storage temperature is an important factor for the risk of foodborne illness from contaminated paneer.

The source of the organisms is fecal contamination, suspected to be of human origin. However, all of these pathogens are considered to also be zoonotic (Todar, 2008). The majority of the contamination is assumed to have occurred during the packaging process (Shrivastava, In preparation), due to the high temperatures that are involved in other processes including the production of paneer from milk. During the first heat-treating step, the milk is heated up to 90°C for 10-15 min, and during the coagulation process, it is again heated up to 60-90°C (Khan and Pal, 2011). Salmonella spp infection can result in a range of outcomes, particularly salmonellosis, which is characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. S. typhi and S. paratyphi (A, B, C) can result in severe enteric fevers (Lacey, 1993). The infectious dose for non-typhoidal Salmonella has been observed to be as low as 103 organisms (Bronze and Greenfield, 2005; Ryan and Ray, 2004). “Food poisoning” from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) often results in similar health outcomes as that of Salmonellosis, which can be acquired from ingesting 106 organisms (Todar, 2008). Infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7 can be acquired from a dose of 10-100 organisms (Todar, 2008) and is typically characterized by the same set of aforementioned symptoms and hemorrhagic colitis. However, O157:H7 infection may result in a more severe condition known as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This is seen in approximately 5-10% of all O157:H7 cases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014,). The attack rates and incubation times for the bacterial isolates can vary depending on population and organism (Table 2).
Table 2: Attack rates and incubation times for E. coli, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Table2.jpg

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