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Transmission/Exposure Routes

Person-to-person; the fecal-oral route is the predominant mode, although transmission sometimes occurs via respiration of oral secretions such as saliva. Indirect transmission occurs through numerous routes, including via contaminated water, food, and fomites (inanimate objects). Contaminated swimming and wading pools can also transmit the virus. (wikipedia)

Case Fatality Ratio

Deaths and other adverse consequences are rare and limited to patients with severe echovirus encephalitis or to persons with B cell-deficiency syndromes who develop persistent infection (Modlin 1986).
Mortality was higher in infants with severe hepatitis (83%) than in infants with infection of the central nervous system (19%) (Modlin 1986).

Incubation Times

2 days and 2 weeks (Medscape)

Burden of Disease

Duration of infectiousness and disease



Asymptomatic Rates

Excretion Rates (see Exposure)



A type of RNA virus that belongs to the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family

Environmental Survival

Unusually stable to chemical and physical agents and to adverse pH conditions

Recommended Dose Response Model

Dose response models for Echovirus
Beta-Poisson, α is 1.06, N50 is 921.94
Betapoisson model.jpg

Modlin, J. F. (1986). "Perinatal Echovirus Infection: Insights from a Literature Review of 61 Cases of SeriousInfection and 16 Outbreaks in Nurseries." Reviews of Infectious Diseases 8(6): 918-926.