- 1 General Overview
- 2 Tap Water Consumption
- 3 Water Distribution Fate and Transport
- 4 Treatment
- 5 Pathogen Occurrence in Water Sources
- 6 Pathogen Specific
- 7 References
The Drinking Water page is intended to serve as a means of providing the relevant information to the users who wish to perform a QMRA on drinking water
Tap Water Consumption
a Direct water: water ingested directly as a beverage.
b Indirect water: water added in preparation of food or beverages.
c 90% CI: 90% confidence interval about the estimated means.
d 90% BI: 90% bootstrap interval about the estimated percentiles.
Source of data: 1994-1996 and 1998 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).
(Kahn H.D. and Stralka K., 2009)
Water Distribution Fate and Transport
aexpected in actual field practice when done by relatively unskilled persons who apply the treatment to waters of varying quality and where there are minimum facilities or supporting instruments;
bby skilled operators who are supported with instrumentation and other tools to maintain the highest level of performance in waters of predictable and unchanging quality.
(Sobsey et al. 2008)
(Sobsey et al. 2008)
Pathogen Occurrence in Water Sources
Table 1. Pathogens in Groundwater
a: All averages included negative samples reported at detection limit
b: Cell culture line
c: Enteroviruses, adenoviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and norovirus genogroups I and II
d: Enteroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and norovirus genogroups I and II
e: Enteroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and norwalk virus
Pathogens with oral data available
Entamoeba coli (human)
Escherichia coli (human)
enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Giardia (human and animals)
Shigella species (human)
Vibrio cholera (human)
Abbaszadegan M, Lechevallier M and Gerba C. (2003) Occurrence of viruses in US groundwaters. Journal AWWA. 95(9): 107-120. Full text
Borchardt M., Bertz, P., Spencer, S. and Battigelli, D. (2003) Incidence of Enteric Viruses in Groundwater from Household Wells in Wisconsin. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(2): 1172–1180. Full text
Borchardt M., Bradbury, K., Gotknowitz, M., Cherry, J. and Parker, B. (2007) Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater from a Confined Bedrock Aquifer. Environmental Science & Technology. 41, 6606-6612. Full text
Borchardt M., Haas N and Hunt R. (2004) Vulnerability of drinking-water wells in La Crosse, Wisconsin, to enteric-virus contamination from surface water contributions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70(10): 5937-5946. Full text
Bradbury K, Borchardt M, Gotkowitz M and Spencer S. (2010) Human viruses as tracers of wastewater pathways into deep municipal wells. Final report to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
DeBorde D, Woessner W, Lauerman B and Ball P. (1998) Virus occurrence and transport in a school septic system and unconfined aquifer. Ground Water. 36(5): 825-834. Full text
Kahn H. and Stralka K. (2009) Estimated daily average per capita water ingestion by child and adult age categories based on USDA's 1994-1996 and 1998 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 19, 396-404 Full text
Powell K, Taylor R, Cronin A, Barrett M, Pedley S, Sellwood J, Trowsdale S and Lerner D. (2003) Microbial contamination of two urban sandstone aquifers in the UK. Water Research. 37: 339-352. Full text
Sobsey, M., Stauber, C., Casanova, L., Brown, J. and Elliott, M. (2008) Point of use household drinking water filtration: A practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 4261-4267. Full text