Difference between revisions of "Campylobacter jejuni"

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{{PSDS|Humans|Fecal-oral, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat|||Recover without any specific treatment. Patients should drink extra fluids as long as the diarrhea lasts. In more severe cases, antibiotics such as azithromycin or erythromycin can shorten the duration of symptoms if given early in the illness|Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive|Extremely hardy spores can persist for years, even decades|}}
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=Hosts=
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Animals and humans
  
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=Transmission/Exposure Routes=
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Fecal-oral, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat
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=Case Fatality Ratio=
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Does not commonly cause death, it has been estimated that approximately 124 persons with Campylobacter infections die each year.
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{|                                                   
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{| border = "1"
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|+ '''Case Fatality Ratio'''
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|-
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|| '''Case Fatality Ratio'''                                             
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| '''Pathway/conditions'''
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| '''Population'''
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| '''References'''
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|-
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| 0.19% (95% CI: 0.13-0.27%)
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| Infected domestically (in Sweden)
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Within first month following illness
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| Sweden
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| <ref name=Ternhag1>Ternhag, A., Törner, A., Svensson, Å., Giesecke, J., & Ekdahl, K. (2005). Mortality following Campylobacter infection: a registry-based linkage study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 5, 70. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-70 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1236927/pdf/1471-2334-5-70.pdf Full Text]
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</ref>
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|-
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| 0.008 (95% CI: 0.0008-0.03%)
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| Infected Abroad (outside of Sweden)
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Within first month following illness
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| Not Reported
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| <ref name=Ternhag1></ref>
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|-
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| 0.23%
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| foodborne infection
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| Denmark
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| <ref name=Helms>Helms, M., Vastrup, P., Gerner-Smidt, P., & Mølbak, K. (2003). Short and long term mortality associated with foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal infections: registry based study. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 326(7385), 357. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC148890/pdf/357.pdf Full Text]</ref>
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|}
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=Incubation Period=
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3-5 days or up to a week <ref name=Medscape>[http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/213720-overview#showall Medscape Page]</ref>
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=Burden of Disease=
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It is estimated to affect over 2.4 million persons every year, or 0.8% of the population. <ref name=CDC>[http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/ CDC Page]</ref> <br />
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In 2010, the CDC reported an incidence 13.6 per 100,000 for Campylobacteriosis. <ref name=MMWR2010>Vital Signs: Incidence and Trends of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food --- Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 1996--2010. (n.d.). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6022a5.htm?s_cid=mm6022a5_w</ref>
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====Duration of infectiousness and disease====
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Symptoms typically reside in one week. Antibiotic treatment has been shown to decrease the duration of intestinal symptoms by 1.32 Days (95% CI: 0.64-1.99) However, because of drug resistance problems, antibiotics are only advised in complicated cases.<ref name=Ternhag2>Ternhag, A., Asikainen, T., Giesecke, J., & Ekdahl, K. (2007). A Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Antibiotic Treatment on Duration of Symptoms Caused by Infection with Campylobacter Species. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(5), 696–700. doi:10.1086/509924 [http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/44/5/696.full.pdf+html Full Text]</ref>
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Campylobacter epidemiology varies greatly between the developed and developing world, probably due to development of immunity early in life. Illness is rare after about 5 years of age (or earlier) in developing countries, but occurs among adults in industrialized countries, probably because they avoided exposure (and therefore immunity) in childhood (Havelaar et al. 2009). However, immunity appears to protect against disease rather than infection, and asymptomatic shedding is common (Havelaar et al. 2009). In a comparison of Mexican children <4y and Swedish patients (ages not given), Swedish patients tended to carry only 1 Campylobacter serotype, while mixed serotypes were common among Mexican children (42%) (Sjögren et al. 1989).
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====Symptomology====
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Illness can cause symptoms beginning 2-5 days after exposures. These symptoms include abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, and fever.<br/>
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<br/>
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Post-infectious complications include:<ref name=FeodoroffB2011>Feodoroff B, Lauhio A, Ellström P and Rautelin H (2011) A Nationwide Study of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Bacteremia in Finland Over a 10-Year Period, 1998–2007, With Special Reference to Clinical Characteristics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 53 (8), e99–e106.</ref>
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* Reactive Arthritis (7%)
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* Guillain-Barre syndrome (1-3/10,000)
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* Bacteremia (<1%)
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====Excretion Rates  (see Exposure) ====
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====Immunity====
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=Microbiology=
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Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive
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=Environmental Survival=
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<br />
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=Recommended Dose Response Model=
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[[Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: Dose Response Models]] <br /> Beta-Poisson, α is 0.14, N<sub>50</sub> is 890.38
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[[File:Betapoisson_model.jpg|thumb|left|300px]]<br /><br /><br /><br />
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<headertabs />
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===References===
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campylobacter Campylobacter Wiki Page] <br />
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<references/>
 
<br>
 
<br>
[[Dose response models for Campylobacter]]
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[[Category:Agent Overview]][[Category:Bacterium]]
<br>
 

Latest revision as of 16:01, 28 November 2012

[edit]

Animals and humans

Fecal-oral, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat

Does not commonly cause death, it has been estimated that approximately 124 persons with Campylobacter infections die each year.

Case Fatality Ratio
Case Fatality Ratio Pathway/conditions Population References
0.19% (95% CI: 0.13-0.27%) Infected domestically (in Sweden)

Within first month following illness

Sweden [1]
0.008 (95% CI: 0.0008-0.03%) Infected Abroad (outside of Sweden)

Within first month following illness

Not Reported [1]
0.23% foodborne infection Denmark [2]

3-5 days or up to a week [3]

It is estimated to affect over 2.4 million persons every year, or 0.8% of the population. [4]
In 2010, the CDC reported an incidence 13.6 per 100,000 for Campylobacteriosis. [5]

Duration of infectiousness and disease

Symptoms typically reside in one week. Antibiotic treatment has been shown to decrease the duration of intestinal symptoms by 1.32 Days (95% CI: 0.64-1.99) However, because of drug resistance problems, antibiotics are only advised in complicated cases.[6]

Campylobacter epidemiology varies greatly between the developed and developing world, probably due to development of immunity early in life. Illness is rare after about 5 years of age (or earlier) in developing countries, but occurs among adults in industrialized countries, probably because they avoided exposure (and therefore immunity) in childhood (Havelaar et al. 2009). However, immunity appears to protect against disease rather than infection, and asymptomatic shedding is common (Havelaar et al. 2009). In a comparison of Mexican children <4y and Swedish patients (ages not given), Swedish patients tended to carry only 1 Campylobacter serotype, while mixed serotypes were common among Mexican children (42%) (Sjögren et al. 1989).

Symptomology

Illness can cause symptoms beginning 2-5 days after exposures. These symptoms include abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, and fever.

Post-infectious complications include:[7]

  • Reactive Arthritis (7%)
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome (1-3/10,000)
  • Bacteremia (<1%)

Excretion Rates (see Exposure)

Immunity

Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive


References

Campylobacter Wiki Page

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ternhag, A., Törner, A., Svensson, Å., Giesecke, J., & Ekdahl, K. (2005). Mortality following Campylobacter infection: a registry-based linkage study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 5, 70. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-70 Full Text
  2. Helms, M., Vastrup, P., Gerner-Smidt, P., & Mølbak, K. (2003). Short and long term mortality associated with foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal infections: registry based study. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 326(7385), 357. Full Text
  3. Medscape Page
  4. CDC Page
  5. Vital Signs: Incidence and Trends of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food --- Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 1996--2010. (n.d.). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6022a5.htm?s_cid=mm6022a5_w
  6. Ternhag, A., Asikainen, T., Giesecke, J., & Ekdahl, K. (2007). A Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Antibiotic Treatment on Duration of Symptoms Caused by Infection with Campylobacter Species. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(5), 696–700. doi:10.1086/509924 Full Text
  7. Feodoroff B, Lauhio A, Ellström P and Rautelin H (2011) A Nationwide Study of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Bacteremia in Finland Over a 10-Year Period, 1998–2007, With Special Reference to Clinical Characteristics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 53 (8), e99–e106.