- 1 Bacillus anthracis - Anthrax
- 1.1 Hosts
- 1.2 Transmission/Exposure Routes
- 1.3 Case fatality ratio
- 1.4 Incubation Times
- 1.5 Burden of Disease
- 1.6 Microbiology
- 1.7 Envrionmental Survival
- 1.8 Recommended Dose Response model
- 1.9 References
Bacillus anthracis - Anthrax
This bacterium infects multiple types of hosts including herbivorous mammals such as livestock and is considered zoonotic however humans are a dead end host and do not become infectious.
Cutaneous: skin contact with spores from infected animals.
Gastrointestinal: eating poorly cooked meat/dairy from infected animal.
Inhalation: Inhalation of spores
Case fatality ratio
|Case Fatality Ratio||Pathway/conditions||Population||References|
|1%||Cutaneous with treatment||General US Population|||
|20%||Cutaneous without treatment||General US population|||
|75%||Inhalation despite treatment|||
|45%||2001 US Attack||Adult US|||
|14% (5 of 37)||Cutaneous||Children 1900-2005|||
|65% (13 of 20)||Gastrointestinal||Children 1900-2005|||
|100% (6 of 6)||primary meningoencephalitis||Children 1900-2005|||
|1.5% (of 132)||Not reported||Hospitalized adults and children, Turkey 1986 to 2000|||
|1-7 days|| Inhalation
|60 (max)|| Inhalation
|10 Days (SD: 8.67)||Inhalation||Sverdlovsk 1979 outbreak (70 cases)|||
Burden of Disease
Duration of infectiousness and disease
Anthrax is not contagious and cannot be transmitted from person-to-person. 
Flu-like symptoms including: Fever (temperature greater than 100 degrees F). The fever may be accompanied by chills or night sweats. Cough, usually a non-productive cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle aches Sore throat, followed by difficulty swallowing, enlarged lymph nodes, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal distress, vomiting, or diarrhea
Excretion Rates (see Exposure)
Anthrax vaccination consists of 5 total intramuscular injections, followed by recommended annual boosters to maintain immunity.
Gram +, aerobic, encapsulated, nonmotile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. Extremely hardy spores can persist for years, even decades.
Recommended Dose Response model
- Holty J, Bravata D, Liu H, Olshen R, Mcdonald K, and Owens D. (2006) Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005. Annals of Internal Medicine. 144, 4. 270-280. Full Text
- Bravata D, Holty J, Wang E, Lewis R, Wise P, McDonald K, and Owen D. (2007) Inhalational, Gastrointestinal, and Cutaneous Anthrax in Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 161 (9): 896-905. Full Text
- Kaya A, Tasyaran M, Erol S, Ozkurt Z, and Ozkan B. (2002) Anthrax in Adults and Children: A Review of 132 Cases in Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21: 258-261. Full Text
- Brookmeyer, R., Johnson, E., & Barry, S. (2005). Modelling the incubation period of anthrax. Statistics in Medicine, 24(4), 531–542. doi:10.1002/sim. Full Text