Difference between revisions of "Bacillus anthracis"

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| Cutaneous with treatment
 
| Cutaneous with treatment
 
| General US Population
 
| General US Population
| ([http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC])
+
| <ref name=CDC>http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 20%
 
| 20%
 
| Cutaneous without treatment
 
| Cutaneous without treatment
 
| General US population
 
| General US population
| ([http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC])
+
| <ref name=CDC></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 75%
 
| 75%
 
| Inhalation despite treatment
 
| Inhalation despite treatment
 
|  
 
|  
| ([http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC])
+
| <ref name=CDC></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 45%
 
| 45%
 
| 2001 US Attack
 
| 2001 US Attack
 
| Adult US
 
| Adult US
| ([http://www.annals.org/content/144/4/270 Holty et al, 2006])
+
| <ref name=Holty>Holty J, Bravata D, Liu H, Olshen R, Mcdonald K, and Owens D. (2006) Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005. Annals of Internal Medicine. 144, 4. 270-280. [http://www.annals.org/content/144/4/270 Full Text]</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 14% (5 of 37)
 
| 14% (5 of 37)
 
| Cutaneous
 
| Cutaneous
 
| Children 1900-2005
 
| Children 1900-2005
| ([http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/9/896.pdf Bravata et al, 2007])
+
| <ref name=Bravata>Bravata D, Holty J, Wang E, Lewis R, Wise P, McDonald K, and Owen D. (2007) Inhalational, Gastrointestinal, and Cutaneous Anthrax in Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 161 (9): 896-905.  [http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/9/896.pdf Full Text]</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 60%
 
| 60%
 
| Inhalation
 
| Inhalation
 
| Children 1900-2005
 
| Children 1900-2005
| ([http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/9/896.pdf Bravata et al, 2007])
+
| <ref name=Bravata></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 65% (13 of 20)
 
| 65% (13 of 20)
 
| Gastrointestinal
 
| Gastrointestinal
 
| Children 1900-2005
 
| Children 1900-2005
| ([http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/9/896.pdf Bravata et al, 2007])
+
| <ref name=Bravata></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 100% (6 of 6)
 
| 100% (6 of 6)
 
| primary meningoencephalitis
 
| primary meningoencephalitis
 
| Children 1900-2005
 
| Children 1900-2005
| ([http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/9/896.pdf Bravata et al, 2007])
+
| <ref name=Bravata></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1.5% (of 132)
 
| 1.5% (of 132)
 
| Not reported
 
| Not reported
 
| Hospitalized adults and children, Turkey 1986 to 2000
 
| Hospitalized adults and children, Turkey 1986 to 2000
| ([http://www.springerlink.com/content/v8ctc3ajmnwxhryn/fulltext.pdf Kaya et al, 2002])
+
| <ref name=Kaya>Kaya A, Tasyaran M, Erol S, Ozkurt Z, and Ozkan B. (2002) Anthrax in Adults and Children: A Review of 132 Cases in Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21: 258-261. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/v8ctc3ajmnwxhryn/fulltext.pdf Full Text]</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
Line 80: Line 80:
 
| Cutaneous
 
| Cutaneous
 
|  
 
|  
| ([http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC])
+
| <ref name=CDC></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1-7 days
 
| 1-7 days
Line 86: Line 86:
 
Ingestion
 
Ingestion
 
|  
 
|  
| ([http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC])
+
| <ref name=CDC></ref>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| 60 (max)
 
| 60 (max)
Line 92: Line 92:
 
Ingestion
 
Ingestion
 
|
 
|
| ([http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC])
+
| <ref name=CDC></ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 10 Days (SD: 8.67)
 
| 10 Days (SD: 8.67)
 
| Inhalation
 
| Inhalation
 
| Sverdlovsk 1979 outbreak (70 cases)
 
| Sverdlovsk 1979 outbreak (70 cases)
| ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15678407 Brookmeyer et al, 2005])
+
| <ref name=Brookmeyer>Brookmeyer, R., Johnson, E., & Barry, S. (2005). Modelling the incubation period of anthrax. Statistics in Medicine, 24(4), 531–542. doi:10.1002/sim. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15678407</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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===References===
 
===References===
[http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/ CDC Anthrax Page] <br />
+
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax <br />
+
<references/>
Holty J, Bravata D, Liu H, Olshen R, Mcdonald K, and Owens D. (2006) Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005. Annals of Internal Medicine. 144, 4. 270-280. [http://www.annals.org/content/144/4/270 Full Text] <br />
+
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax <br/>
Bravata D, Holty J, Wang E, Lewis R, Wise P, McDonald K, and Owen D. (2007) Inhalational, Gastrointestinal, and Cutaneous Anthrax in Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 161 (9): 896-905.  [http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/9/896.pdf Full Text] <br />
 
Kaya A, Tasyaran M, Erol S, Ozkurt Z, and Ozkan B. (2002) Anthrax in Adults and Children: A Review of 132 Cases in Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21: 258-261. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/v8ctc3ajmnwxhryn/fulltext.pdf Full Text] <br />
 
Brookmeyer, R., Johnson, E., & Barry, S. (2005). Modelling the incubation period of anthrax. Statistics in Medicine, 24(4), 531–542. doi:10.1002/sim. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15678407}} <br />
 
 
[[Category:PSDS]]
 
[[Category:PSDS]]
 
[[Category:Bacterium]][[Category:BT category A]]
 
[[Category:Bacterium]][[Category:BT category A]]

Revision as of 15:23, 22 May 2012

Bacillus anthracis - Anthrax

Hosts

This bacterium infects multiple types of hosts including herbivorous mammals such as livestock and is considered zoonotic however humans are a dead end host and do not become infectious.

Transmission/Exposure Routes

Cutaneous: skin contact with spores from infected animals.
Gastrointestinal: eating poorly cooked meat/dairy from infected animal.
Inhalation: Inhalation of spores

Case fatality ratio

Case fatality ratios
Case Fatality Ratio Pathway/conditions Population References
1% Cutaneous with treatment General US Population [1]
20% Cutaneous without treatment General US population [1]
75% Inhalation despite treatment [1]
45% 2001 US Attack Adult US [2]
14% (5 of 37) Cutaneous Children 1900-2005 [3]
60% Inhalation Children 1900-2005 [3]
65% (13 of 20) Gastrointestinal Children 1900-2005 [3]
100% (6 of 6) primary meningoencephalitis Children 1900-2005 [3]
1.5% (of 132) Not reported Hospitalized adults and children, Turkey 1986 to 2000 [4]

Incubation Times

Incubation Times
Days Pathway Population Reference
0-1 Cutaneous [1]
1-7 days Inhalation

Ingestion

[1]
60 (max) Inhalation

Ingestion

[1]
10 Days (SD: 8.67) Inhalation Sverdlovsk 1979 outbreak (70 cases) [5]

Burden of Disease

Duration of infectiousness and disease

Anthrax is not contagious and cannot be transmitted from person-to-person.

Symptomology

Flu-like symptoms including: Fever (temperature greater than 100 degrees F). The fever may be accompanied by chills or night sweats. Cough, usually a non-productive cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle aches Sore throat, followed by difficulty swallowing, enlarged lymph nodes, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal distress, vomiting, or diarrhea

Excretion Rates (see Exposure)

Immunity

Anthrax vaccination consists of 5 total intramuscular injections, followed by recommended annual boosters to maintain immunity.

Microbiology

Gram +, aerobic, encapsulated, nonmotile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. Extremely hardy spores can persist for years, even decades.

Envrionmental Survival

Recommended Dose Response model

Dose response models for Bacillus anthracis

Exponential model: optimal value of k is 1.65E-05
Exponential model.png



References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/
  2. Holty J, Bravata D, Liu H, Olshen R, Mcdonald K, and Owens D. (2006) Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005. Annals of Internal Medicine. 144, 4. 270-280. Full Text
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Bravata D, Holty J, Wang E, Lewis R, Wise P, McDonald K, and Owen D. (2007) Inhalational, Gastrointestinal, and Cutaneous Anthrax in Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 161 (9): 896-905. Full Text
  4. Kaya A, Tasyaran M, Erol S, Ozkurt Z, and Ozkan B. (2002) Anthrax in Adults and Children: A Review of 132 Cases in Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21: 258-261. Full Text
  5. Brookmeyer, R., Johnson, E., & Barry, S. (2005). Modelling the incubation period of anthrax. Statistics in Medicine, 24(4), 531–542. doi:10.1002/sim. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15678407

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax