Difference between revisions of "Adenovirus"

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{{PSDS|Herbivorous mammals such as livestock, not typically humans|Cutaneous: skin contact with spores from infected animals. Gastrointestinal: eating poorly cooked meat/dairy from infected animal. Inhalation: Inhalation of spores|Rare for cutaneous, none for inhalation/gastrointestinal|Cutaneous: 0-1d. Other forms: 1-7d, rarely up to 60d|Cutaneous with treatment 1%, without treatment 20%. Inhalation 75% despite treatment|A vaccine is available for persons at increased risk (e.g., lab workers, military). Cutaneous anthrax is readily treatable with various antibiotics|Gram +, aerobic, encapsulated, nonmotile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium|Extremely hardy spores can persist for years, even decades|Exponential model: optimal value of k is 1.65(10<sup>-05</sup>) <br />[[File:Exponential_model.png|thumb|center|200px]] }}
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=Hosts=
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Animals and humans <ref name=Wiki>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenoviridae Wiki]</ref>
  
<br>
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=Transmission/Exposure Routes=
[[Dose response models for Adenovirus]]
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Direct contact, fecal-oral transmission, and occasionally waterborne transmission <ref name=Wiki></ref>
<br>
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=Case Fatality Ratio=
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{|                                                 
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{| border = "1"
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|+ '''Case fatality ratios'''                                 
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|-
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| '''Case Fatality Ratio'''                                             
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| '''Pathway/conditions'''
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| '''Population'''
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| '''References'''
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|-
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|48%(of over 300)
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|
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|Immunocompromised
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|<ref name=Hierholzer>Hierholzer J. (1992) Adenoviruses in the Immunocompromised Host. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 5(3): 262-274. [http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/5/3/262 Full Text]</ref>
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|-
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|5.1%(of 428)
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|
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|1991-2007 Korean Children
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|<ref name=Lee>Lee J, Choi E, and Lee H. (2010) Clinical severity of respiratory adenoviral infection by serotypes in Korean children over 17 consecutive years (1991-2007). Journal of Clinical Virology. 49: 115-120. [http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/science/article/pii/S138665321000274X Full Text] <br /></ref>
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|}
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=Incubation Times=
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3-10 days
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=Burden of Disease=
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Adenoviruses C in non-hospitalized Mexican children older than five years of age showed a rate of AdV infection of 23%. <ref name=Rosete>Rosete D, Manjarrez M, and Barron B. (2008) Adenoviruses C in non-hospitalized Mexican children older than five years of age with acute respiratory infection. 103(2): 195-200. [http://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=18425273&dopt=abstractplus Abstract]</ref>
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====Duration of infectiousness and disease====
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====Symptomology====
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Symptoms include colds, sore throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, pink eye, fever, bladder inflammation or infection, inflammation of stomach and and intestines, and neurologic disease.  These symptoms can vary depending on how a person becomes infected.  For example, breathing in adenovirus may be more likely to cause respiratory illnesses. <ref name=CDC> CDC http://www.cdc.gov/adenovirus/index.html </ref>
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====Excretion Rates  (see Exposure) ====
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Adenovirus can persist in the tonsils, adenoids, and intestines for months or years.  This is a persistent adenovirus infection which usually shows no symptoms. <ref name=CDC> </ref>
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====Immunity====
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Currently there is no vaccine available to the general public.  However, military personnel can obtain a vaccine for adenovirus types 4 and 7. <ref name=CDC></ref>
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=Microbiology=
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Medium-sized (90-100 nm), nonenveloped icosohedral viruses containing double-stranded DNA <ref name=CDC></ref>
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=Environmental Survival=
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Unusually stable to chemical and physical agents and to adverse pH conditions <ref name=Wiki></ref>
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=Recommended Dose Response Model=
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<br />[[Adenovirus: Dose Response Models]] <br /> Exponential, k is 0.61 <br /> [[File:Exponential_model.png|thumb|left|200px]]
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<headertabs />
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===References===
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<references/>
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[[Category:Agent Overview]]
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[[Category:Virus]]

Latest revision as of 09:25, 29 August 2014

[edit]

Animals and humans [1]

Direct contact, fecal-oral transmission, and occasionally waterborne transmission [1]

Case fatality ratios
Case Fatality Ratio Pathway/conditions Population References
48%(of over 300) Immunocompromised [2]
5.1%(of 428) 1991-2007 Korean Children [3]

3-10 days

Adenoviruses C in non-hospitalized Mexican children older than five years of age showed a rate of AdV infection of 23%. [4]

Duration of infectiousness and disease

Symptomology

Symptoms include colds, sore throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, pink eye, fever, bladder inflammation or infection, inflammation of stomach and and intestines, and neurologic disease. These symptoms can vary depending on how a person becomes infected. For example, breathing in adenovirus may be more likely to cause respiratory illnesses. [5]

Excretion Rates (see Exposure)

Adenovirus can persist in the tonsils, adenoids, and intestines for months or years. This is a persistent adenovirus infection which usually shows no symptoms. [5]

Immunity

Currently there is no vaccine available to the general public. However, military personnel can obtain a vaccine for adenovirus types 4 and 7. [5]

Medium-sized (90-100 nm), nonenveloped icosohedral viruses containing double-stranded DNA [5]

Unusually stable to chemical and physical agents and to adverse pH conditions [1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wiki
  2. Hierholzer J. (1992) Adenoviruses in the Immunocompromised Host. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 5(3): 262-274. Full Text
  3. Lee J, Choi E, and Lee H. (2010) Clinical severity of respiratory adenoviral infection by serotypes in Korean children over 17 consecutive years (1991-2007). Journal of Clinical Virology. 49: 115-120. Full Text
  4. Rosete D, Manjarrez M, and Barron B. (2008) Adenoviruses C in non-hospitalized Mexican children older than five years of age with acute respiratory infection. 103(2): 195-200. Abstract
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 CDC http://www.cdc.gov/adenovirus/index.html Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "CDC" defined multiple times with different content