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table generation

Consecutive Data Sorted Data
time (hours) N (observed count) sorted time sorted N
0 2.60E+06 0 2.60E+06
0 2.60E+06 0 2.60E+06
0 2.41E+06 0 2.41E+06

Use of CAMRA Wiki

CAMRA researchers welcome submissions to the Wiki. Key quantitative information is needed to undertake a QMRA. This begins with problem formulation and includes articulation of the venue, hazards, exposure pathways and necessary data. We have developed forms or will be developing forms which can be used to fill in key information regarding.

HAZ ID
Dose-Response
Exposure Assessment
Risk Characterization

Agent Overview


Bacillus anthracis Bacillus anthracisThe part "|Bacillus anthracis" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Burkholderia BurkholderiaThe part "|Burkholderia" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter jejuniThe part "|Campylobacter jejuni" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Coxiella burnetii Coxiella burnetiiThe part "|Coxiella burnetii" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Cyanobacteria CyanobacteriaThe part "|Cyanobacteria" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Escherichia coli Escherichia coliThe part "|Escherichia coli" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Francisella tularensis Francisella tularensisThe part "|Francisella tularensis" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Legionella pneumophila Legionella pneumophilaThe part "|Legionella pneumophila" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Listeria monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenesThe part "|Listeria monocytogenes" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Mycobacterium avium Mycobacterium aviumThe part "|Mycobacterium avium" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosaThe part "|Pseudomonas aeruginosa" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia rickettsiiThe part "|Rickettsia rickettsii" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Salmonella SalmonellaThe part "|Salmonella" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Shigella sp. Shigella sp.The part "|Shigella sp." of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Staphylococcus ayreus Staphylococcus ayreusThe part "|Staphylococcus ayreus" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Variola major Variola majorThe part "|Variola major" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Vibrio cholerae Vibrio choleraeThe part "|Vibrio cholerae" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.

Yersinia pestis Yersinia pestisThe part "|Yersinia pestis" of the query was not understood.

Results might not be as expected.


Burkholderia

Testing R-formatted template content

TITLE [1]
Dose MILD TO SEVERE DIARRHEA NOT MILD TO SEVERE DIARRHEA Total
1E+04 0 5 5
1E+06 1 8 9
1E+08 3 2 5


TITLE [2]
Dose MILD TO SEVERE DIARRHEA NOT MILD TO SEVERE DIARRHEA Total
1E+04 0 5 5
1E+06 1 8 9
1E+08 3 2 5


TITLE [1]
Dose MILD TO SEVERE DIARRHEA NOT MILD TO SEVERE DIARRHEA Total
1E+04 0 5 5
1E+06 1 8 9
1E+08 3 2 5
[3]
  1. 1.0 1.1 Short M. 2002. Blah blah
  2. Shorty Q. 2003. Blah blah!
  3. References
    1. 1.0 1.1 Short M. 2002. Blah blah
    2. Shorty Q. 2003. Blah blah!
    3. References <references/>
      Goodness of fit and model selection
      Model Deviance Δ Degrees
      of freedom
      χ20.95,1
      p-value
      χ20.95,m-k
      p-value
      Exponential 2.99 2.98 2 3.84
      0.0845
      5.99
      0.224
      Beta Poisson 0.0156 1 3.84
      0.901
      Exponential is preferred to beta-Poisson; cannot reject good fit for exponential.
      Optimized parameters for the beta-Poisson model, from 500 bootstrap iterations
      Parameter MLE estimate Percentiles
      0.5% 2.5% 5% 95% 97.5% 99.5%
      α 2.13E-01 1.26E-03 3.22E-02 3.22E-02 2.66E+02 3.62E+02 1.25E+03
      N50 3.41E+07 1.91E+06 2.78E+06 5.87E+06 1.01E+14 1.01E+14 9.22E+140
      Optimized k parameter and N50 for the exponential model, from 500 bootstrap iterations
      Parameter MLE estimate Percentiles
      0.5% 2.5% 5% 95% 97.5% 99.5%
      k 2.13E-01 2.19E-09 2.19E-09 4.40E-09 4.03E-08 1.17E-07 2.50E-07
      {{{N50type}}}* 3.41E+07 2.78E+06 5.92E+06 1.72E+07 1.58E+08 3.17E+08 3.17E+08
      *Not a parameter of the exponential model; however, it facilitates comparison with other models.


      TITLE
      Dose death not death Total
      100 1 3 4
      1000 3 1 4
      1E+04 4 0 4
      1E+05 4 0 4
      Goodness of fit and model selection
      Model Deviance Δ Degrees
      of freedom
      χ20.95,1
      p-value
      χ20.95,m-k
      p-value
      Exponential 0.338 0.195 3 3.84
      0.658
      7.81
      0.953
      Beta Poisson 0.142 2 5.99
      0.931
      Exponential is preferred to beta-Poisson; cannot reject good fit for exponential.
      Optimized k parameter and N50 for the exponential model, from 500 bootstrap iterations
      Parameter MLE estimate Percentiles
      0.5% 2.5% 5% 95% 97.5% 99.5%
      k 1.82E+00 3.62E-04 5.50E-04 6.22E-04 7.02E-03 7.02E-03 7.02E-03
      {{{N50type}}}* 3.38E+02 9.87E+01 9.87E+01 9.87E+01 1.11E+03 1.26E+03 1.92E+03
      *Not a parameter of the exponential model; however, it facilitates comparison with other models.


      The IHERA project brings together experts from India and the USA to integrate knowledge in the field of risk assessment, transmit this knowledge to the next generation of risk assessors, and identify knowledge gaps and research collaborations. The project aims to achieve the following three specific objectives: (1) Develop a course curriculum on ecosystem and human health risk assessment with special reference to microbial contamination, (2) Train students, regulators, teachers, engineers, and researchers using developed course material at both I.I.T. Delhi and Drexel University, and (3) Identify research projects on human health risk issues. These objectives will be achieved through expert’s interactions at a curriculum development workshop, during collaborative preparation of course materials, and while team teaching during faculty exchange visits.


      Although more than 50% of waterborne disease outbreaks are due to contaminated ground water, there is very little known about the persistency of these viruses (Yates et al., 1984). In order to determine the virus survival in ground water, Yates et al. (1984) compiled samples from 11 different sites around the United States of filtered and nonfiltered groundwater that were tested with three viruses: poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage. Over a span of 30 days, the samples were monitored to determine the level of infectivity that remained over time. The measurements were taken on predetermined days and the unit was CFU/ml.

      To model the Yates et al. (1984) data, the information was inputted into R programming, © The R Foundation, to fit the 112 sets of data to the best fitting persistence model. This information is recorded in the table along with the associated k values, the T-90, the strain temperature, and the number of data points used in the set. The "Best Fit" column notes that some of the sets had similar BIC values for more than one persistence model. Further detail is given on the ID number’s respective page.


      Summary of Best Fitting Models and Data on Yates Groundwater Samples
      Agent ID Best Fit Model k-value 1 k-value 2 k-value 3 Sole Best Fit? T-90 Matrix Strain Temp *C # of data points Measurement units Other Factors Region
      Echovirus 1 Gompertz 3 -2.309 0.299 2.395 Yes 5.739 Ground Water 13 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 1
      Echovirus 2 Juneja and Marks (2) -2.457 2.458 Yes 6.642 Ground Water 17 11 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 2
      Echovirus 3 Double exponential 0.906 0.115 0.931 Yes 3.181 Ground Water 12 13 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Wisconsin
      MS-2 Phage 4 Double exponential -3.337 1.675 0.000 Yes 1.374 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 5 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.841 0.070 Yes 0.297 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 6 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.401 0.111 Yes 1.220 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 7 Gamma 2.336 0.145 Yes 1.002 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 8 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.471 0.099 Yes 0.896 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 9 Juneja and Marks (2) -0.249 1.688 Yes 4.260 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 2
      Poliovirus 10 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.433 2.307 Yes 4.823 Ground Water 17 11 CFU/ml Filtered California 2
      Poliovirus 11 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.074 0.005 Yes 0.000 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 12 Exponential Damped 2.510 0.152 Yes 1.082 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 13 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.842 1.004 Yes 0.072 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 14 Juneja and Marks (2) 5.009 1.093 Yes 0.076 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 15 Double exponential 2.855 0.391 0.970 Yes 0.880 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 16 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.831 1.504 Yes 0.174 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 17 Weibull 0.856 0.467 Yes 0.856 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 18 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.638 1.512 Yes 0.386 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 19 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.304 0.032 Yes 0.128 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 20 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.725 0.821 Yes 0.046 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Echovirus 21 Double exponential 0.225 3.555 0.461 No 7.136 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 1
      Echovirus 22 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.413 0.477 No 4.287 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 1
      Echovirus 23 Linear 0.099 1.280 No 5.507 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 2
      Echovirus 24 Exponential 0.416 No 5.384 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 2
      Echovirus 25 Exponential 1.447 No 1.599 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Univ. of Arizona
      Echovirus 26 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.367 0.390 No 1.221 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Univ. of Arizona
      Echovirus 27 Juneja and Marks (2) -2.057 1.445 No 19.098 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 1
      Echovirus 28 Juneja and Marks (2) -3.491 1.872 No 20.962 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 1
      Echovirus 29 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.015 0.086 No 24.684 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 2
      Echovirus 30 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.089 0.342 No 14.639 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 2
      Echovirus 31 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.560 1.859 No 8.740 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 1
      Echovirus 32 Juneja and Marks (2) -3.581 2.849 No 7.885 Ground Water 13 10 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 2
      Echovirus 33 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.816 1.933 No 8.329 Ground Water 13 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 2
      Echovirus 34 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.365 1.572 No 9.890 Ground Water 18 11 CFU/ml Filtered California 1
      Echovirus 35 Juneja and Marks (2) -4.833 3.611 No 7.262 Ground Water 18 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 1
      Echovirus 36 Juneja and Marks (2) -3.330 2.632 No 8.753 Ground Water 17 9 CFU/ml Filtered California 2
      Echovirus 37 Juneja and Marks (2) -2.153 3.599 No 3.246 Ground Water 23 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 38 Weibull 0.449 0.767 No 0.425 Ground Water 23 4 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 39 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.950 0.014 No 0.268 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 40 Exponential Damped 5.025 0.125 No 0.477 Ground Water 23 4 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 41 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.223 0.071 No 0.236 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 42 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.429 0.064 No 0.775 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 43 Double exponential 0.428 16.044 0.149 No 1.171 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 44 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.911 0.416 No 1.851 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 45 Weibull 1.131 0.385 No 1.112 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 46 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.492 0.082 No 0.683 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 47 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.435 0.152 No 1.599 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 48 Double exponential 0.573 16.427 0.275 No 1.788 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 49 Weibull 1.199 0.482 No 1.158 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 50 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.481 0.200 No 1.876 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 51 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.406 0.070 No 0.867 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 52 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.566 0.433 No 2.780 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 53 Gamma 0.968 0.280 No 1.081 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 54 Weibull 2.440 0.448 No 2.440 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 55 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.813 0.463 No 2.053 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 56 Exponential 2.026 No 0.988 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 57 Double exponential -0.691 2.015 0.000 No 1.002 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 58 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.511 0.087 No 0.869 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 59 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.468 0.120 No 1.318 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 60 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.638 0.189 No 1.504 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 61 Gamma 2.012 0.108 No 0.635 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 62 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.664 0.337 No 1.984 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 63 Exponential Damped 1.505 -0.075 No 1.352 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 64 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.776 0.085 No 0.420 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 65 Gamma 0.954 0.132 No 0.490 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 66 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.940 0.258 No 1.273 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 67 Exponential 1.601 No 1.280 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 68 Gamma 2.040 0.156 No 0.880 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 69 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.891 0.215 No 1.216 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      MS-2 Phage 70 Logistic 2.676 No 1.026 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 71 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.386 0.177 No 2.047 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 1
      Poliovirus 72 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.301 0.077 No 1.152 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 1
      Poliovirus 73 Linear 0.163 0.852 No 3.609 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 2
      Poliovirus 74 Double exponential 0.243 14.744 0.320 No 5.359 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 2
      Poliovirus 75 Gamma 0.528 2.513 No 2.407 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Univ. of Arizona
      Poliovirus 76 Gamma 0.488 2.477 No 2.247 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Univ. of Arizona
      Poliovirus 77 Exponential Damped 0.139 0.034 No 45.118 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 1
      Poliovirus 78 Juneja and Marks (2) -0.949 0.922 No 27.711 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 1
      Poliovirus 79 Gompertz 3 -1.034 0.220 2.490 No 11.749 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 2
      Poliovirus 80 Double exponential 0.009 0.647 0.046 No 5.124 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 2
      Poliovirus 81 Double exponential 0.112 0.636 0.185 No 6.993 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 1
      Poliovirus 82 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.039 0.088 No 9.688 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 1
      Poliovirus 83 Juneja and Marks (2) -0.518 2.322 No 3.147 Ground Water 13 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 2
      Poliovirus 84 Double exponential 0.068 0.823 0.038 No 3.552 Ground Water 18 10 CFU/ml Filtered California 1
      Poliovirus 85 Weibull 2.480 0.604 No 2.572 Ground Water 18 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 1
      Poliovirus 86 Exponential Damped 0.627 0.051 No 4.653 Ground Water 17 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 2
      Poliovirus 87 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.204 2.338 No 0.970 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 88 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.720 1.901 No 0.151 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 89 Weibull 0.771 0.509 No 0.528 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 90 Gamma 7.361 0.015 No 0.106 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 91 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.177 1.791 No 0.702 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 92 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.742 1.106 No 0.033 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 93 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.282 0.019 No 0.114 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 94 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.868 1.062 No 0.089 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 95 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.467 0.022 No 0.157 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 96 Juneja and Marks (2) 5.341 1.186 No 0.024 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 97 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.390 0.298 No 0.871 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 98 Gamma 2.501 0.036 No 0.172 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 99 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.654 1.144 No 0.426 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 100 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.740 1.238 No 0.386 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 101 Weibull 0.003 0.132 No 0.012 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 102 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.008 0.030 No 0.152 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 103 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.378 0.028 No 0.194 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 104 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.343 1.894 No 0.189 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 105 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.392 2.079 No 0.659 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 106 Gamma 4.486 0.014 No 0.118 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 107 Double exponential 3.192 0.439 0.951 No 0.659 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 108 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.585 1.664 No 0.147 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 109 Gamma 11.269 0.004 No 0.020 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 110 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.450 0.023 No 0.200 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
      Poliovirus 111 Exponential 0.853 No 2.556 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
      Poliovirus 112 Gamma 10.242 0.243 No 7.081 Ground Water 12 13 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Wisconsin

    Cite error: <ref> tag with name ".7B.7B.7Brefer.7D.7D.7D" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

    Goodness of fit and model selection
    Model Deviance Δ Degrees
    of freedom
    χ20.95,1
    p-value
    χ20.95,m-k
    p-value
    Exponential 2.99 2.98 2 3.84
    0.0845
    5.99
    0.224
    Beta Poisson 0.0156 1 3.84
    0.901
    Exponential is preferred to beta-Poisson; cannot reject good fit for exponential.
    Optimized parameters for the beta-Poisson model, from 500 bootstrap iterations
    Parameter MLE estimate Percentiles
    0.5% 2.5% 5% 95% 97.5% 99.5%
    α 2.13E-01 1.26E-03 3.22E-02 3.22E-02 2.66E+02 3.62E+02 1.25E+03
    N50 3.41E+07 1.91E+06 2.78E+06 5.87E+06 1.01E+14 1.01E+14 9.22E+140
    Optimized k parameter and N50 for the exponential model, from 500 bootstrap iterations
    Parameter MLE estimate Percentiles
    0.5% 2.5% 5% 95% 97.5% 99.5%
    k 2.13E-01 2.19E-09 2.19E-09 4.40E-09 4.03E-08 1.17E-07 2.50E-07
    {{{N50type}}}* 3.41E+07 2.78E+06 5.92E+06 1.72E+07 1.58E+08 3.17E+08 3.17E+08
    *Not a parameter of the exponential model; however, it facilitates comparison with other models.


    TITLE [1]
    Dose death not death Total
    100 1 3 4
    1000 3 1 4
    1E+04 4 0 4
    1E+05 4 0 4
    Goodness of fit and model selection
    Model Deviance Δ Degrees
    of freedom
    χ20.95,1
    p-value
    χ20.95,m-k
    p-value
    Exponential 0.338 0.195 3 3.84
    0.658
    7.81
    0.953
    Beta Poisson 0.142 2 5.99
    0.931
    Exponential is preferred to beta-Poisson; cannot reject good fit for exponential.
    Optimized k parameter and N50 for the exponential model, from 500 bootstrap iterations
    Parameter MLE estimate Percentiles
    0.5% 2.5% 5% 95% 97.5% 99.5%
    k 1.82E+00 3.62E-04 5.50E-04 6.22E-04 7.02E-03 7.02E-03 7.02E-03
    {{{N50type}}}* 3.38E+02 9.87E+01 9.87E+01 9.87E+01 1.11E+03 1.26E+03 1.92E+03
    *Not a parameter of the exponential model; however, it facilitates comparison with other models.


    The IHERA project brings together experts from India and the USA to integrate knowledge in the field of risk assessment, transmit this knowledge to the next generation of risk assessors, and identify knowledge gaps and research collaborations. The project aims to achieve the following three specific objectives: (1) Develop a course curriculum on ecosystem and human health risk assessment with special reference to microbial contamination, (2) Train students, regulators, teachers, engineers, and researchers using developed course material at both I.I.T. Delhi and Drexel University, and (3) Identify research projects on human health risk issues. These objectives will be achieved through expert’s interactions at a curriculum development workshop, during collaborative preparation of course materials, and while team teaching during faculty exchange visits.


    Although more than 50% of waterborne disease outbreaks are due to contaminated ground water, there is very little known about the persistency of these viruses (Yates et al., 1984). In order to determine the virus survival in ground water, Yates et al. (1984) compiled samples from 11 different sites around the United States of filtered and nonfiltered groundwater that were tested with three viruses: poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage. Over a span of 30 days, the samples were monitored to determine the level of infectivity that remained over time. The measurements were taken on predetermined days and the unit was CFU/ml.

    To model the Yates et al. (1984) data, the information was inputted into R programming, © The R Foundation, to fit the 112 sets of data to the best fitting persistence model. This information is recorded in the table along with the associated k values, the T-90, the strain temperature, and the number of data points used in the set. The "Best Fit" column notes that some of the sets had similar BIC values for more than one persistence model. Further detail is given on the ID number’s respective page.


    Summary of Best Fitting Models and Data on Yates Groundwater Samples
    Agent ID Best Fit Model k-value 1 k-value 2 k-value 3 Sole Best Fit? T-90 Matrix Strain Temp *C # of data points Measurement units Other Factors Region
    Echovirus 1 Gompertz 3 -2.309 0.299 2.395 Yes 5.739 Ground Water 13 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 1
    Echovirus 2 Juneja and Marks (2) -2.457 2.458 Yes 6.642 Ground Water 17 11 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 2
    Echovirus 3 Double exponential 0.906 0.115 0.931 Yes 3.181 Ground Water 12 13 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Wisconsin
    MS-2 Phage 4 Double exponential -3.337 1.675 0.000 Yes 1.374 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 5 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.841 0.070 Yes 0.297 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 6 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.401 0.111 Yes 1.220 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 7 Gamma 2.336 0.145 Yes 1.002 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 8 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.471 0.099 Yes 0.896 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 9 Juneja and Marks (2) -0.249 1.688 Yes 4.260 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 2
    Poliovirus 10 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.433 2.307 Yes 4.823 Ground Water 17 11 CFU/ml Filtered California 2
    Poliovirus 11 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.074 0.005 Yes 0.000 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 12 Exponential Damped 2.510 0.152 Yes 1.082 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 13 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.842 1.004 Yes 0.072 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 14 Juneja and Marks (2) 5.009 1.093 Yes 0.076 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 15 Double exponential 2.855 0.391 0.970 Yes 0.880 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 16 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.831 1.504 Yes 0.174 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 17 Weibull 0.856 0.467 Yes 0.856 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 18 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.638 1.512 Yes 0.386 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 19 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.304 0.032 Yes 0.128 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 20 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.725 0.821 Yes 0.046 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Echovirus 21 Double exponential 0.225 3.555 0.461 No 7.136 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 1
    Echovirus 22 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.413 0.477 No 4.287 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 1
    Echovirus 23 Linear 0.099 1.280 No 5.507 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 2
    Echovirus 24 Exponential 0.416 No 5.384 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 2
    Echovirus 25 Exponential 1.447 No 1.599 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Univ. of Arizona
    Echovirus 26 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.367 0.390 No 1.221 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Univ. of Arizona
    Echovirus 27 Juneja and Marks (2) -2.057 1.445 No 19.098 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 1
    Echovirus 28 Juneja and Marks (2) -3.491 1.872 No 20.962 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 1
    Echovirus 29 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.015 0.086 No 24.684 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 2
    Echovirus 30 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.089 0.342 No 14.639 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 2
    Echovirus 31 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.560 1.859 No 8.740 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 1
    Echovirus 32 Juneja and Marks (2) -3.581 2.849 No 7.885 Ground Water 13 10 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 2
    Echovirus 33 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.816 1.933 No 8.329 Ground Water 13 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 2
    Echovirus 34 Juneja and Marks (2) -1.365 1.572 No 9.890 Ground Water 18 11 CFU/ml Filtered California 1
    Echovirus 35 Juneja and Marks (2) -4.833 3.611 No 7.262 Ground Water 18 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 1
    Echovirus 36 Juneja and Marks (2) -3.330 2.632 No 8.753 Ground Water 17 9 CFU/ml Filtered California 2
    Echovirus 37 Juneja and Marks (2) -2.153 3.599 No 3.246 Ground Water 23 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 38 Weibull 0.449 0.767 No 0.425 Ground Water 23 4 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 39 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.950 0.014 No 0.268 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 40 Exponential Damped 5.025 0.125 No 0.477 Ground Water 23 4 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 41 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.223 0.071 No 0.236 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 42 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.429 0.064 No 0.775 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 43 Double exponential 0.428 16.044 0.149 No 1.171 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 44 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.911 0.416 No 1.851 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 45 Weibull 1.131 0.385 No 1.112 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 46 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.492 0.082 No 0.683 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 47 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.435 0.152 No 1.599 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 48 Double exponential 0.573 16.427 0.275 No 1.788 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 49 Weibull 1.199 0.482 No 1.158 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 50 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.481 0.200 No 1.876 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 51 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.406 0.070 No 0.867 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 52 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.566 0.433 No 2.780 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 53 Gamma 0.968 0.280 No 1.081 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 54 Weibull 2.440 0.448 No 2.440 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 55 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.813 0.463 No 2.053 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 56 Exponential 2.026 No 0.988 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 57 Double exponential -0.691 2.015 0.000 No 1.002 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 58 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.511 0.087 No 0.869 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 59 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.468 0.120 No 1.318 Ground Water 23 8 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 60 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.638 0.189 No 1.504 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 61 Gamma 2.012 0.108 No 0.635 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 62 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.664 0.337 No 1.984 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 63 Exponential Damped 1.505 -0.075 No 1.352 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 64 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.776 0.085 No 0.420 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 65 Gamma 0.954 0.132 No 0.490 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 66 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.940 0.258 No 1.273 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 67 Exponential 1.601 No 1.280 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 68 Gamma 2.040 0.156 No 0.880 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 69 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.891 0.215 No 1.216 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    MS-2 Phage 70 Logistic 2.676 No 1.026 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 71 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.386 0.177 No 2.047 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 1
    Poliovirus 72 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.301 0.077 No 1.152 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 1
    Poliovirus 73 Linear 0.163 0.852 No 3.609 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Filtered North Carolina 2
    Poliovirus 74 Double exponential 0.243 14.744 0.320 No 5.359 Ground Water 12 9 CFU/ml Nonfiltered North Carolina 2
    Poliovirus 75 Gamma 0.528 2.513 No 2.407 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Filtered Univ. of Arizona
    Poliovirus 76 Gamma 0.488 2.477 No 2.247 Ground Water 23 6 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Univ. of Arizona
    Poliovirus 77 Exponential Damped 0.139 0.034 No 45.118 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 1
    Poliovirus 78 Juneja and Marks (2) -0.949 0.922 No 27.711 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 1
    Poliovirus 79 Gompertz 3 -1.034 0.220 2.490 No 11.749 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Filtered New York 2
    Poliovirus 80 Double exponential 0.009 0.647 0.046 No 5.124 Ground Water 12 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered New York 2
    Poliovirus 81 Double exponential 0.112 0.636 0.185 No 6.993 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Filtered Texas 1
    Poliovirus 82 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.039 0.088 No 9.688 Ground Water 13 11 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 1
    Poliovirus 83 Juneja and Marks (2) -0.518 2.322 No 3.147 Ground Water 13 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Texas 2
    Poliovirus 84 Double exponential 0.068 0.823 0.038 No 3.552 Ground Water 18 10 CFU/ml Filtered California 1
    Poliovirus 85 Weibull 2.480 0.604 No 2.572 Ground Water 18 8 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 1
    Poliovirus 86 Exponential Damped 0.627 0.051 No 4.653 Ground Water 17 10 CFU/ml Nonfiltered California 2
    Poliovirus 87 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.204 2.338 No 0.970 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 88 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.720 1.901 No 0.151 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 89 Weibull 0.771 0.509 No 0.528 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 90 Gamma 7.361 0.015 No 0.106 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 91 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.177 1.791 No 0.702 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 92 Juneja and Marks (2) 4.742 1.106 No 0.033 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 93 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.282 0.019 No 0.114 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 94 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.868 1.062 No 0.089 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 95 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.467 0.022 No 0.157 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 96 Juneja and Marks (2) 5.341 1.186 No 0.024 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 97 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.390 0.298 No 0.871 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 98 Gamma 2.501 0.036 No 0.172 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 99 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.654 1.144 No 0.426 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 100 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.740 1.238 No 0.386 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 101 Weibull 0.003 0.132 No 0.012 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 102 Juneja and Marks (1) 1.008 0.030 No 0.152 Ground Water 23 5 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 103 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.378 0.028 No 0.194 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 104 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.343 1.894 No 0.189 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 105 Juneja and Marks (2) 2.392 2.079 No 0.659 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 106 Gamma 4.486 0.014 No 0.118 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 107 Double exponential 3.192 0.439 0.951 No 0.659 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 108 Juneja and Marks (2) 3.585 1.664 No 0.147 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 109 Gamma 11.269 0.004 No 0.020 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 110 Juneja and Marks (1) 0.450 0.023 No 0.200 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Filtered Arizona
    Poliovirus 111 Exponential 0.853 No 2.556 Ground Water 23 7 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Arizona
    Poliovirus 112 Gamma 10.242 0.243 No 7.081 Ground Water 12 13 CFU/ml Nonfiltered Wisconsin