Recreational Water

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Recreational Exposure

Table 1. Water Ingestion by selected groups of swimmers

Original survey data can be obtained by this link.

Population Age Number of Subjects Average water ingestion (mL/45 minute) Standard deviation
United States Adults Older than 18 years old 12 16 19
United States Non-adults 18 years old and younger 41 37 31

a: Non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Sum test was applied for statistical analysis.
b: The comparison between adults and non-adults are significantly different at 5% level. The comparison between different gender groups was evaluated and not significant.

(Dufour et al, 2006)


Dufour A, Evans O, Behymer T and Cantu R. (2006) Water ingestion during swimming activities in a pool: A pilot study. Journal of Water Health. 04.4: 425-430. Full text