Greywater Legionella Case Study

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Pathogen considered

Legionella pneumophila

Hazard

Legionella pneumophila and related Legionella bacteria cause a collection of infections ranging from sub-clinical Pontiac fever to severe form of pneumonia called Legionnaires disease.

Susceptible population

More susceptible individuals include

•Older people (usually 50 years of age or older)
•Current or former smokers
•Those with a chronic lung disease (like COPD or emphysema)
•Those with a weak immune system from diseases like cancer, diabetes, or kidney failure
•People who take drugs that suppress (weaken) the immune system (like after a transplant operation or chemotherapy)

Spread of disease

Infection is caused by breathing in of contaminated air or mist containing the bacteria. General sources are found to be:

•Hot tubs
•Cooling towers
•Hot water tanks
•Large plumbing systems
•Decorative fountains

This study mainly focuses on the spread of the bacteria through cooling towers. A hypothetical case in India is taken up for study.



REFERENCES

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/index.html- Accessed: 02 July 2014.

2. World Health Organization. (2007). Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf - Accessed: 02 July 2014.

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Resources

Armstrong 2007
Legionella Cooling Tower case study
Australian Water Recycling Guidelines
Lp Cooling Towers