General Overview
Coronaviruses cause acute and chronic respiratory, enteric, and central nervous system (CNS) diseases in humans and many species of animals. Coronaviruses are divided into three groups based on the genome sequences, including SARSCoV (a member of group II) as well as murine hepatitis virus (MHV), bovine coronavirus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV), equine coronavirus, and human coronavirues OC43 and NL63, which also cause respiratory infections. SARSCoV, the causal pathogen of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused a large outbreak of this severe pneumonia occurred in Hong Kong in 2003 and rapidly spread throughout the world. SARSCoV can infect and replicate in mice, ferrets, hamsters, cats, and several species of nonhuman primates (cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, African green monkeys, and marmosets). MHV that infects both mice and rats often has been studied as a suitable model of human coronavirus diseases (Watanabe et al. 2010).
Summary Data
DeDiego et al. (2008) challenged four groups of the transgenic mice intranasally with graded doses of rSARSCoV and the survival was monitored for 13 days.
De Albuquerque et al. (2006) inoculated A/J mice with MHV1 intranasally via intranasal route and monitored the survival for 21 days.
Recommended Model
It is recommended that the pooled experiments 260 and 261 should be used as the best doseresponse model. Both strains are common in outbreaks. The pooling narrows the range of the confidence region of the parameter estimates and enhances the statistical precision.
Summary
By increasing the number of data points, the pooling narrows the range of the confidence region of the parameter estimates and enhances the statistical precision.
ID  # of Doses  Agent Strain  Dose Units  Host type  Μodel  Optimized parameters  Response type  Reference  

260  4  rSARSCoV  PFU  mice hACE2  exponential 
k = 2.97E03 LD_{50}/ID_{50} = 2.33E+02 
death  Murine Hepatitis Virus Strain 1 Produces a Clinically Relevant Model of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in A/J Mice  
260, 261  0  rSARSCoV  PFU  mice hACE2 and A/J  exponential 
k = 2.46E03 LD_{50}/ID_{50} = 2.82E+02 
death  
261  4  MHV1  PFU  A/J mice  exponential 
k = 2.14E03 LD_{50}/ID_{50} = 3.24E+02 
death  Immunological and Molecular Characterization of Susceptibility in Relationship to Bacterial Strain Differences in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) 
k = 2.97E03
LD_{50}/ID_{50} = 2.33E+02



Parameter histogram for exponential model (uncertainty of the parameter)
Exponential model plot, with confidence bounds around optimized model
k = 2.46E03
LD_{50}/ID_{50} = 2.82E+02



Parameter histogram for exponential model (uncertainty of the parameter)
Exponential model plot, with confidence bounds around optimized model
k = 2.14E03
LD_{50}/ID_{50} = 3.24E+02



Parameter histogram for exponential model (uncertainty of the parameter)
Exponential model plot, with confidence bounds around optimized model